What is a typical thesis grade

The faculty council shall decide, based on a proposal by the relevant doctoral programme, on the scope and structure of dissertations that take a form different than a monograph or article-based dissertation.

Descriptions of grades for master's theses

In such cases, supervisors must take particular care to ensure the quality of the manuscript before it is submitted for preliminary examination. The Faculty Council will appoint a minimum of two preliminary examiners, who must have the qualifications of at least a docent or equivalent academic qualifications. The professor in charge of the discipline will prepare a proposal on the preliminary examiners using a form designed for this purpose.

The form must be submitted to the Viikki Campus doctoral study services. See here for contact information. The appointment proposal must include a written statement by the doctoral candidate confirming that he or she does not object to the appointment of the proposed examiners. Proposal for preliminary examiners in Finnish Proposal for preliminary examiners in English.

When choosing the preliminary examiners, particular attention should be paid not only to their expertise but also to their impartiality regarding the dissertation in question. Before the preliminary examiners are appointed, the doctoral candidate submits the dissertation manuscript and other required documents to the Viikki Campus doctoral study services: viikki-phd helsinki. The instructions for submitting for pre-examination are in Instructions for students.

Types of thesis

The preliminary examiners should determine the merits of the manuscript, propose corrections and suggestions for improvement, and submit a reasoned written statement to the Faculty recommending that permission to defend the dissertation be either granted or denied within two months of accepting the assignment.

The preliminary examiners must submit to the faculty a separately or jointly written statement in which they either a Recommend that the doctoral candidate be granted permission to publicly defend the dissertation in its current manuscript form or with minor corrections that the supervisor can approve b Find that the manuscript contains deficiencies that are serious enough for them not to be able to recommend that the doctoral candidate be granted permission to publicly defend the dissertation. A preliminary examiner may also require that the doctoral candidate make corrections to the manuscript which the preliminary examiner then approves before providing a statement recommending the granting of permission for the public defence.

After approving the corrections, the preliminary examiner must submit to the faculty his or her final statement on the manuscript. In such cases, the preliminary examination may take up to six months in total. However, even then the status of the preliminary examiner is not equal to that of the supervisor. The faculty council must be informed of cancelled preliminary examination procedures. Hence, it is vital that the preliminary examination be thorough and that the author be required to make the necessary corrections and additions before the statement on the permission to defend the dissertation is prepared.

However, the preliminary examiners are not dissertation supervisors. In the case one of the publications is a finished manuscript and not submitted for publication, the preliminary examiners should pay particular attention to the quality of this article in their assessment.

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The preliminary examiner may outline or summarise the corrections and additions required in his or her statement. The dissertation should not contain any significant deficiencies in the theoretical premise, methods or empirical section.


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After the preliminary examiners have been appointed, Viikki PhD study services inform the pre-examiners and doctoral candidate via e-mail of the decision. The pre-examiners receive instructions on the examination and the dissertation manuscript and relevant appendices in the same mail. The preliminary examiners must, within two months of accepting the assignment, submit a written statement, either jointly or separately, explicitly recommending that the doctoral candidate be granted or denied permission to defend the dissertation in a public examination.

The Faculty Council appoints a dissertation grading committee for the public examination on the basis of the proposal of the supervising professor. The proposal must include a written statement by the doctoral candidate confirming that he or she does not object to the appointment of the Opponent. A proposal for Grading committee members e-form. When selecting the Opponent, particular attention should be paid not only to his or her expertise but also to his or her impartiality in relation to the dissertation in question.

A preliminary examiner of the dissertation may not act as the opponent. Same principles of disqualification apply to the Opponent and pre-examiners. Custos is a professor at the faculty. Also an Associate Professor can be appointed as a Custos. The professor in charge of the discipline who has served as one of the dissertation supervisors or has co-authored one or more of the publications included in it may serve as the Custos.

In this case, he or she may not participate in proposing a grade for the dissertation.


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However, he or she will serve as the administrative chair of the grading committee, who assists the committee in its work and ensures that the committee has sufficient operational resources. In the Faculty of Pharmacy, the grading committee consist primarily of the Opponent and the Custos acting also as a faculty representative. If the Custos cannot participate in the grading of the dissertation, one faculty representative is appointed. Faculty representative s must be professors or docents of the University of Helsinki, or members of the university's teaching and research staff with the academic qualifications of a docent.

The faculty representative s must be well acquainted with the grading criteria and regulations related to the examination of doctoral theses in use at the University of Helsinki. The grading committee must propose to the faculty council a grade for the dissertation. The proposal is signed by all members of the grading committee. Custos kustos is Faculty-appointed chair of the public examination. The Public examination starts when the participants enter the hall.

The doctoral candidate first, Custos second and Opponent last. The Custos and the Opponent, provided that they are doctoral degree-holders, will carry their Doctor's hats in their hands when entering and leaving the auditorium. During the public examination, they will place the hat in front of them on the table with the lyre emblem facing the audience.

The thesis

The Custos introduces the doctoral candidate and the Opponent to the audience and opens the examination. If the examination is likely to take a long time, the Custos may interrupt it by announcing a break. The public examination may take maximum of six hours. After the examination is done, doctoral candidate asks the audience to make comments and pose questions. The Custos will ensure that the doctoral candidate has the opportunity to reply to each comment and that the comments do not digress from the topic in hand.

Finally, the Custos will stand up to announce that the examination is completed. The participants will leave the auditorium in the same order in which they entered: first the doctoral candidate, followed by the Custos and the Opponent. The audience may congratulate the doctoral candidate once he or she has left the auditorium and has had the opportunity to thank the Opponent and Custos. More detailed information in the page Welcome to the public examination.

Choosing Between a Thesis & Non-Thesis Master's Degree

The Opponent should pay attention to the same issues as the preliminary examiners in his or her statement. The Opponent should clearly indicate in his or her statement whether he or she recommends that the dissertation be approved or rejected. The public examination. The doctoral candidate must ensure that the Opponent and Custos as well as the preliminary examiners receive copies of the dissertation in good time before the public examination. Doctoral dissertations are graded on a scale of Fail, Pass, Pass with Distinction.

In all the cases, the dissertation can be extended for summer internship at certain research and development organizations or also as PhD synopsis. In Indonesia, the term thesis is used specifically to refer to master's theses. The undergraduate thesis is called skripsi , while the doctoral dissertation is called disertasi.

In general, those three terms are usually called as tugas akhir final assignment , which is mandatory for the completion of a degree. Undergraduate students usually begin to write their final assignment in their third, fourth or fifth enrollment year, depends on the requirements of their respective disciplines and universities. In some universities, students are required to write a proposal skripsi or proposal tesis thesis proposal before they could write their final assignment.

If the thesis proposal is considered to fulfill the qualification by the academic examiners, students then may proceed to write their final assignment. In Iran, usually students are required to present a thesis in their master's degree and a dissertation in their Doctorate degree, both of which requiring the students to defend their research before a committee and gaining their approval. Most of the norms and rules of writing a thesis or a dissertation are influenced by the French higher education system. In Italy there are normally three types of thesis.

Thesis requirements vary greatly between degrees and disciplines, ranging from as low as 3—4 ECTS credits to more than Thesis work is mandatory for the completion of a degree.

Some advice on writing a thesis, book or article. Alan Macfarlane 2008